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Sunday, 13 January 2013

Object Oriented Programming Systems

Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) are widely used in software development projects. C++ is one of the early OOPS. Using OOPS for program development reduces programming errors and improves their quality. Representing objects of the real world as software objects in OOPS is quite a natural way for program development. The introductory section brings out the characteristics of OOPs and, in particular the three basic characteristics, which are:
1. Encapsulation
2. Inheritance 
3. Polymorphism

Object Oriented Programming
The prime purpose of C++ programming was to add object orientation to the C programming language, which is in itself one of the most powerful programming languages.
The core of the pure object-oriented programming is to create an object, in code, that has certain properties and methods. While designing C++ modules, we try to see whole world in the form of objects. For example a car is an object which has certain properties such as color, number of doors, and the like. It also has certain methods such as accelerate, brake, and so on.

Advantages of OOP
It refers to the ability for multiple programmers to use existing written and debugged classes in their programs. This is a time saving and quality improvement mechanism that adds coding efficiency to a language. Moreover, the programmer can incorporate new features into an existing class, further developing the application and allowing users to achieve improved performance. This time saving feature optimizes code, helps to gain secured applications and facilitates easier maintenance of applications. Object oriented programs are designed for reuse. The features which facilitate ease of reuse, are encapsulation and inheritance. 

Since each class is self contained with data and functions and also the functions are grouped together, these programs are easily maintainable. Encapsulation enhances maintainability of programs. 

The software objects represent the real objects in the problem domain and hence the programming is quite natural to reality. They can be given real names such as transport, cycle, etc. thereby enhancing understand-ability of the code. 

Modularity is unique not only to OOP, but to function oriented programming as well. Modularity in OOP is facilitated through the division of a program into well defined and closely knit classes. Thus, any complex program can be divided or partitioned into modules, and the divide and conquer strategy can be used for program design through modularization of the code through classes. 

The inheritance mechanism of OOP facilitates easy extension of the features of classes. Thus, old and proven code can be extended easily through the inheritance property of OOP. 

Data Integrity
Avoiding global variables, goto statements and binding the data within the class ensures data integrity and restricted access - which is the very purpose of OOP. 

Improved Quality
One of the objectives of OOP is to improve the quality of programs. C++ constructs reduce the chances of programming errors with their inbuilt modularity and re-usability. 
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